Phylogenetic Relationship of Genus Microhyla (Amphibia, Anura) in Sunda Shelf including Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Peninsular Malaysia as revealed by 16S rRNA mtDNA Gene Sequences


Anggun Firdaus
N Ratih
I Karima
A T Kusuma
N M Suastika


Sundaland was a single large landmass during Pliocene and Pleistocene period and consisted of Java, Borneo, Sumatra, Malay-Peninsula and others smaller island. We used 26 partial DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genes 16S rRNA from taxa of Microhylidae (23 genus Microhyla and 3 outgroups) from GenBank. We aligned sequences using MEGA 5 software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) with 1000 bootstraps. Our results reveal three monophyletic clades which are not supported: clade A (all Sundaland, including M. malang, M. borneensis, M. mantheyi, M. achatina, M. berdmorei, M. superciliaris, and M. palmipes); clade B (from Borneo and Malay Penisular, including M. annectens, M. perparva, and M. petrigena); and clade C (consists of outgroup species, Metaphrynella pollicaris, Chaperina fusca, and Kalophrynus heterochirus). Clade A reveal three subclades with unresolved relationship: AI (M. malang, M. borneensis, M. mantheyi, M. achatina, and M. berdmorei), AII (M. supercilliaris), and AIII (M. palmipes). Clade B reveal two well-supported subclades: BI (M. annectens) and BII (M. perparva and M. petrigena). Our results show that phylogenetic within genus Microhyla was mostly affected by species distributions.

Keywords: Microhyla, phylogenetic, Sundaland


How to Cite
Firdaus, A., Ratih, N., Karima, I., Kusuma, A. T. and Suastika, N. M. (2018) “Phylogenetic Relationship of Genus Microhyla (Amphibia, Anura) in Sunda Shelf including Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Peninsular Malaysia as revealed by 16S rRNA mtDNA Gene Sequences”, Bioinformatics and Biomedical Research Journal, 1(1), pp. 1–6. Available at: (Accessed: 10December2023).


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